Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of pancreatic hormone insulin (Type1 diabetes mellitus) or due to the resistance of cells to insulin secreted by the body (Type 2 diabetes mellitus). It is a rapidly increasing serious condition which evokes a lot of global concern. Exogenous insulin administration is a commonly used treatment for Type 1diabetes mellitus and for gestational diabetes. The conventional subcutaneous insulin injections cause a lot of suffering to the patient primarily due to pain and secondarily due to dose sensitivity and further complications. Hence alternate delivery systems are an area of endeavor for medical professionals and a convenient alternative system will be a boon to the patients. As a result of the technological advances, various invasive and non-invasive delivery systems have been introduced in the past years. Nanotechnology, particle mediated delivery, pulmonary delivery, buccal spray etc. are the most recent advances. This article reviews some of these novel delivery systems of insulin.
Sosa George, Anitha Roy