Pharmacognostical standardization of dried rhizome of Rheum emodi Wall. (Polygonaceae) was carried out as per the WHO, and Pharmacopeia guidelines for morphological, physicochemical (ash and extractive values) parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, assay of total phenolics and flavonoids, determination of contaminants as well as fingerprint profiling using HPTLC and HPLC. The present study reveals standardization profile for Rheum emodi Wall., matching with the limits and standards of Pharmacopiea. The new parameters added by this communication for quality control of plant drugs are assay of phenolic and flavonoids, HPTLC and HPLC fingerprinting as well as cochromatography of R. emodi extracts with standards emodin and chrysophanic acid. The present communication may help in accurate identification of plant material and also to check adulteration, which will provide safer and better bio-efficacy of plant material.