Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained increasing interest due to their special features, such as unusual optical and electronic properties, high stability and biological compatibility, controlable morphology and size dispersion, and easy surface functionalization in typical synthesis; AuNPs are produced by reduction of gold salts such as AuCl3 in an appropriate solvent. Usually a stabilizing agent is also added to prevent the particles from aggregating AuNPs have shown great potential applications in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials, biology, medicine, and related interdisciplinary fields As with most newly developed technologies, the use of gold nanoparticles comes with some concerns. The size and controllability of the particles, as well as the ejection from the body may pose health concerns. The possible costs might also make gold nanoparticle treatment unfeasible in an everyday hospital setting. However, gold nanoparticles have the potential to be a sustainable resource for the future with the help of continual scientific innovations. This review is focused essentially on the synthesis and applications of gold nanoparticles in the field of medicine and targeted drug delivery. Nanotechnology has become one of the most interesting and advanced areas of research in this field. Among nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles demonstrate special advantages in this field due to their unique properties, small size and high surface area-to-volume ratio. These particles have been widely used in various biomedical applications and drug delivery systems due to their inert nature, stability, high dispersity, non-cytotoxicity and biocompatibility.