Analytical and Medicinal properties of leaves of Holoptelea Integrifolia

Khushboo Saxena1*; R. Irchhaiya 2 ; V. K. Dixit 3
  1. Institute of pharmacy; Bundelkhand University Jhansi
  2. HOD, Institute of pharmacy; Bundelkhand University Jhansi
  3. Professor, Institute of pharmacy; Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (U.P), 284128
Corresponding Author: Khushboo saxena M.Pharma (pharmacognosy) Final Year Student, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi. Email:[email protected]
Date of Submission: 10-03-2013
Date of Acceptance: 19-03-2013
Conflict of Interest: NIL
Source of Support: NONE
Citation: *Khushboo Saxena; R. Irchhaiya1; V. K. Dixit2 “Analytical and Medicinal properties of leaves of Holoptelea Integrifolia” Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res.,
April-June 2013, 5(2): 195-201.doi: doi number
Copyright: © 2013 IJDDR, Khushboo saxena et al. This is an open access paper distributed under the copyright agreement with Serials Publication, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
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The ethanolic extract of leaves of Holoptelea integrifolia traditionally used in Indian system of medicine and exhibit wide range of biological activity. Plant extract have evolved as a source of bioactive compounds and possess a potential for developing novel therapeutic agents. All these biological activity are subjected to further studies aimed to develop promising bioactive compound for preclinical and clinical trials. According to ethno-medical studies leaves and stem bark of this plant have been reported for antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, abortifacient activity and used in management of cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the analytical and medicinal property of the leaves extract of Holoptelea integrifolia.


Holoptelea integrifolia, plant extract, analytical, medicinal.


Herbal medicines have recently attracted much attention as alternative medicines useful for treating or preventing life style related disorders and relatively very little knowledge is available about their mode of action. There has been a growing interest in the analysis of plant products which has stimulated intense research on their potential health benefits. Holoptelea integrifolia is well known roadside tree having a wide range of spectrum of biological activities[1]. Holoptelea integrifolia is also known as Indian elm and ulmus integrifolia which belong to Ulmaceae family. The Ulmaceae family consist of 15genera and 200 species are distributed over tropical and temperate regions of northern hemisphere[2]. Mainly distributed in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, .Indo-china, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, Burma and China[3]. Holoptelea integrifolia is also known as chirivilva, pootikaranja, udakirya, hasthivaruni (Sanskrit); papri, chilbil, kanju, cilbil, banchilla, bawal, poothigam, begana (Hindi); Indian elm, jungle cork tree, Indian beech tree, monkey biscuit tree (English); Aavil, njettaval, aval (Malayalam); Aya, ayil, kanci, vellaya, avil, pattai (Tamil)[5]; rajain, khlen, arjan (Punjabi); Nata karanja (Bengali) Ainasadada, vavala, vavil, papra, bawal (Marathi); Charal, charel, kanjo, waola, chirbil, chirmil, (Gujrathi); Sano pangro (Nepali); Iya (Siddha); Vamvlo (Konkani)[6,5].Various part of plant is reported for various activities. Traditionally, barkstem and leaves are used as Astringent, bitter, anthelmintic, and in treatment of tuberculosis, dysmenorrhoea, piles ,leprosy, diabetes, hemorrhoids fistula, flatulence, vitiligo and in skin diseases.
Holoptelea integrifolia, the versatile medicinal plant is the unique source of various types of compounds having diverse chemical structure a very little work has been done on the biological activity and plausible medicinal application of these compounds and hence extensive investigation is needed to exploit their therapeutic utilities to combat diseases.

Pharmacognostic studies:

• Morphological studies:

Holoptelea integrifolia is the large spreading glaborous deciduous tree about 15-25 meters in height distributed throughout the greater part of India upto an altitude of 600 m. Its Bark: is whitish yellowish grey, and exfoliates with regular intervals and offensive smell when cut. Leaves: are simple alternates, elliptic, usually distichous , acuminate and the base is rounded or cordite. Leaf: margin is entire glabrous and leaf blade is pinnately veined with 3 to 7 veins on each sides[5]. Flower : are greenish yellow, usually male or hermaphrodite, monochlamydeoous or rarely polygamous and flowering usually takes place in Jan to Feb. Fruits : are sub orbicular samara with membranous wings and usually seen in month of April and may .The shape of fruit is 2 cm in diameter and 0.6 to 1 inch broad and notched at the top[22].

Active chemical constituents:

Phytochemical investigation shows the presence of chemical constituent such as terpenoids, alkaloids, glycoside, carbohydrates, steroids, sterols, saponins, tannins, protein, and flavonoids[6]. The isolated principle are Beta amyrin, Beta sitosterols, octacosanol, holopettelin-A, holopetelin-B, hederagenin, hexacosanol, Beta-D-glucose,fridelin, epifriedelin, 2-amino napthaqiunone, 1,4- napthalenedione are considered as responsible for various activity[7]. The traditional uses, reported biological/pharmacological activity, isolated compounds and therapeutic application of holoptelea integifolia which might be useful for scientific and researchers to find out new entities responsible for therapeutic activity.

Medicinal uses of Holoptelea Integrifolia in traditional ayurvedic system:

The bark and leaves are used as bitter, astrigents, anthelmintic, and used in treatment of diabetes, skin disease, intestinal disorder, leprosy, rheumatism and wound healing in the form of paste[26] .It is an important pollen allergens plant of India. Plant is useful in treatment of obesity, edema, and bronchitis. Mucilage and juice obtained from boiled bark has been reported to be useful in rheumatism intestinal tumour when applied externally. Paste of stem bark is applied externally to treat inflammation of lymph gland and common fever, scabies and ring worm. Whereas paste of bark and leaf is applied externally for treatment of leucoderma[6,16].

Materials and methods:

Plant collection and authentication

The leaves of Holoptelea Integrifolia was collected from Jhansi (U.P), and Identified and authenticated by National vrkshayurveda research institute Jhansi. The accession no. is NVRI/05551/2011. The leaves was dried in shade, and finally grounded in powdered form in and electronic grinder and stored in cellophane bags at 4oC until use.

Preparation of Extract:

The air dried and coarsely powdered leaves (350 g) were first extracted with 1ltr petroleum ether about 40-80oC to remove all fatty acids and again it is extracted with ethanol (95%) in a soxhlet apparatus for 70 hr .The extract were concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and controlled temperature (30-50oC).The yield value of both the leaves extract is recorded.

Analytical study of leaves extract:

Phytochemical evaluation of ethanolic extract:

Chromatographical studies: TLC

The Ethanolic extract of powdered leaves of Holopetlea integrifolia was subjected to thin layer chromatography studies, to find the presence of number of compound. When a substance or a mixture of compounds is spotted in dissolved form to the thin layer plate during the separation process & developed in a suitable solvent system, the compound that have a higher affinity for the stationary phase (Sorbent), adsorbed on the sorbent, and so move slowly up the plate as the solvent font migrates. Those compound that have a less affinity for the stationary phase (Sorbent), adsorbed less on the sorbent.
TLC plate showing the 6 spots with different colour with different Rf value, 0.5% vanillin in dil. H2SO4 in solvent system (Toluene:Ethylacetate:formic acid) in 9:1:1.
• Adsorbent-Activated Silica gelG
• Detecting Agent- 0.5%vanillin in dil.H2SO4
• Solvent system- Toluene: Ethylacetate: formic acid (9:1:1).


HPTLC finger print profile of leave extract of Holoptelea integrifolia.
Application –Linomat 5 Applicator ( Camag)
Volume Applied – 10 ul
Solvent System – Toluene :Ethyl acetate : formic acid (9:1:1)
TLC plate development –Pre-saturated Camag Twin Trough Chamber

Medicinal properties of leaves Extract of Holoptelea integrifolia:

Ethnomedically, the leaves and stem bark of plant were used by tribals for skin diseases, obesity and in management of cancer. Whereas various extract, like methanolic, aqueous, petroleum ether, and ethanolic extract of leaves and bark of plant used as antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, abortifacient, and in cancer. Traditionally leaves and bark used as bitter, astringent, anthelmintic, inflammation[7,8], acid gastritis, dyspepsia, colic, intestinal worms, vomiting, edema, piles, wound healing, leprosy, diabetes[17], haemorrhoids, dysmenorrhoea, diarrhoea, rheumatism, polyuria, helminthiasis, tuberculosis.


The phytochemical screening of extracts also revealed the presence of various chemical constituents responsible for various activities. Further studies should emphasize on isolations and characterization of active principle and medicinal importance of plant Holoptelea integrifolia.

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