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Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical analysis of leaf part of the Medicinal Herb: Zaleya govindia

Sharma Shailendra *1 Bhandari Anil 1 Choudhary Deepak 1 Sharma Rambabu1
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University
Corresponding Author: Shailendra Sharma Assistant Professor, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India E-mail: herbsinfo2020@gmail.com,
Date of Submission: 04-12-2013 Date of Acceptance: 03-03-2014
Copyright: © 2014 Shailendra Sharma et al, publisher and licensee IYPF. This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Abstract

The aim of the study is to cover the pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Zaleya govindia. The leaves of Zaleya govindia belonging to the family Aizoaceae is a widely grown plant throughout India. Pharmacognostical study included macroscopical characters, physico-chemical constants and fluorescence analysis. The powder characteristics showed presence of calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains, fibers, trichome, mucilage and lignified cells. Different ash values were determined to find the inorganic content in the sample. Physiochemical studies revealed, foreign matter (0.52±0.01w/w), total moisture content (Leaf-16.16%w/w), total ash (Leaf-23.5w/w%), acid insoluble ash (Leaf-5%w/w), water-soluble ash (Leaf-15%w/w), alcoholic soluble extractive value (Leaf-13.33%w/w), chloroform soluble extractive value (Leaf-5.33%w/w), petether soluble extractive value (Leaf-1.6%w/w), and water soluble extractive value (Leaf-32%w/w). Solvents of different polarity were used to find out the extractive value for leaf of Zaleya govindia. Carbohydrate, glycoside, alkaloid, flavonoids, tannin and resin compounds were found in preliminary phytochemical screening. Ultraviolet analysis exhibited considerable variation. Phytochemical investigation indicated the preparation of different extracts using different solvents and phytochemical tests for confirmation of the presence of carbohydrate, alkaloids, glycosides, triterpenes, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, tannin, saponins, and flavonoids. T.S of leaf with different reagents shows the presence mesophyll, spongy parenchyma, lower epidermis, lignin, lignified xylem, calcium oxalate crystals, collenchyma etc.

Keywords

Pharmacognostical, Extractive value, phytochemical analysis, Fluorescence analysis.

INTRODUCTION

Zaleya govindia is a prostrate, glabrous, succulent and annual found almost throughout India as a weed in cultivated and waste land. The plant belongs to the family Aizoaceae. Zaleya govidia has been used in various parts of Asia, Africa, Australia and South America for curing various diseases[1]. In some African countries the plant has been popular use for skin diseases, wound healing, fever and tooth aches. In India it is used in the treatment of ophthalmic disease. The root applied to the eye cures corneal ulcers, itching, dimness of sight and night blindness. The juice of leaves is used to treat the black quarter. The bitter roots are used for curing bacterial infections and it is also given in combination with ginger as a cathartic. The leaves contains huge amount of vitamin C which is used to treat edema. The decoction of the herb is used as a vermifuge and is useful in rheumatitis. It is also an antidote to alcoholic poison[1,2]. Different names are there of this plant Trianthema petendra, Portulacastrum juss. Meedik, Papularria Forssk[4,5,6,]. The genus Trianthema consists of 20 species but only a few species have been phytochemically reported. Trianthema is a genus of annual or perennial plant characterized by usual fleshy, opposite, unequal, smooth-margined leaves; prostrate growth form; flowers with five perianth segments; flowers subtended by a pair of bracts; superior fruit a circumscissile capsule with a winged lid; and net primary production represents the biomass or biocontent which is incorporated into the plant parts (Total photosynthesis less respiration) during a specified time interval. On the other hand, gross primary production represents gross photosynthesis or the total assimilation of organic matter or biomass during a specified time period. Methods like harvest, gaseous exchange, disappearance of raw material, determination of radioactive materials and chlorophyll estimations are directly or indirectly employed for evaluating net primary production. Gaseous exchange method is used for measuring both net as well as gross productivity since both O2 and CO2 changes are measured simultaneously. However, this method is disadvantageous, for the experiment is carried out under unnatural conditions. It has measured the net production and respiration by the respective increase and decrease in the dry matter while the gross production from the sum total of these two values, a more advantageous [3]. The crude extract of the whole plant has been reported to be superior as a wound dressing material. The extract also effectively suppressed the inflammation produced by mediators viz. histamine and serotonin[14,15].

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Collection & Identification

The leaves of Zaleya govindia were collected from the local areas of Jodhpur, Barmer, Rajasthan. These herbs were authenticated by Botanical Survey of India, Jodhpur having authentication number JNU/PH/2011/Zg C 6.

Drying and size Reduction of Plant

The leaf material of Zaleya govindia was subjected to shade drying for about 3 weeks. The dried plant material was further crushed to powder and the powder was passed through the sieve mesh 40 and stored in air tight container for further analysis.

Organoleptic Study of Plant Material

In some cases, general appearance of the herb is similar to related species. Thus, detailed study of the morphological characters can be helpful in differentiating them. The organoleptic study of a drug includes its visual appearance to the naked eye along with its characteristics likes odour, taste, texture etc. For each particular organoleptic group, a particular systemic examination can be carried out[4].

DETERMINATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONSTANTS OF PLANT MATERIALS`

Microscopical studies:

The required samples of Zaleya govindia leaf were sectioned with the help of fresh blade. The sections were cleared and then stained with phloroglucinol, sulphuric acid and concentrated acetic acid. Sections were also stained with Iodine solution for starch, safranin. Quantitative microscopy was also performed like stomatal number, stomatal index, palisade ratio, vein islet, vein termination. Photographs were taken with Canon IXUS-75 digital camera[13].

Powder microscopy:

Shade dried leaf were powdered with the help of an electric grinder till a fine powder was obtained. This fine powder of the leaf was subjected to powder microscopy, as per standard procedures mentioned.

Determination Of Fluorescence Character:

Fluorescence characters of powdered leaf material with different chemical reagents were determined under ordinary and ultraviolet light[6,7].

Determination Of Physicochemical Parameters:

The dried plant material was subjected for determination of physicochemical parameters such as total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water soluble ash value, LOD, alcohol soluble extractive and water soluble extractive values, etc[8,9].

Extraction of Powdered Plant Material:

The shade dried powdered plant material was subjected to soxhlet extraction using the solvents of different polarity such as chloroform, ethanol, water and petroleum ether. The extracts were collected and evaporated to dryness and the percent yields of all the extracts were determined. All the extracts were then stored in a refrigerator till further analysis[10.11].

EXTRACTIVE VALUES[12].

Cold Extractive Values:

The air-dried coarse drug powder (4g) was macerated separately with solvents (Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of volume 100 ml in a closed flask for 24 hours, shaken frequently during six hours and allowed to stand for 24 hours. It was filtered rapidly, taking precaution against loss of solvent, the filtrate evaporated to dryness in a tarred flat bottom dish and dried on water bath, to constant weight and weighed.

Hot Extraction Values:

The powdered material of the drug (100g) was packed in a Soxhlet apparatus separately for each solvent like petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol but in case of water extract drug was prepared by decoction method. Each extract was evaporated to dryness and constant extractive value recorded.

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION:

After collection and authentication, the plant material was shade dried and powdered. It was passed through sieve no. 40 and subjected to extraction. Weighed quantity of plant material was extracted separately with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water by Cold extraction method. The plant material was also extracted with different solvents like petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol in soxhlet apparatus while water extract was prepared by decoction. The extracts were evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure and controlled temperature (40- 50 ºC)10. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation for the detection of following compounds; carbohydrates, protein, amino acids, fats and oils, sterols and steroids, glycoside, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds, saponins, resins etc11.

RESULTS

Zayela govindia (commonly known as Gudalio- Satto, Santhi) is used for the treatment of various diseases. The plant is shown in Figure 1.

MICROSCOPICAL STUDIES:

Microscopy of leaf material was performed and results are shown in Figure 2,3,4,5, and 6

POWDER MICROSCOPY

Powder microscopy was performed treating fine powder with different reagents as shown in Figure: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12.

QUANTITATIVE POWDER MICROSCOPY:

Quantitative powder microscopy was performed treating fine powder with different reagents as shown in

Quantitative microscopy parameters

Determination of fluorescence character:

Fluorescence characters of powdered leaf material with different chemical reagents were determined under ordinary and ultraviolet light as shown in Table: 2

DETERMINATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS:

Different physicochemical parameters were performed and results are shown in Table: 3

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION:

Different extracts of leaf were subjected for phytochemical screening as shown in Table:4.

Discussion

For the purposes of quality control, assessment of purity and identification of any sample, standardization is very much essential. In the present research, pharmacognostic study, physiochemical analysis, of the leaves of Zayela govindia were carried out. Pharmacognostical studies and determination of different physiochemical parameters are very much essential for the standardization of drug and establishing its pharmacological efficacy. Hence, these studies help in identification and authentication of the plant material[16,17,18]. The present work was undertaken to lay down the standards that could be useful for establishing the authenticity of the drug material. The preliminary phytochemical screening will be useful in finding the chemical nature of drug.

Tables at a glance

Table icon Table icon Table icon Table icon
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4

Figures at a glance

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10
Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10
Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14
Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14

References

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3) http://calphotos.edu/cgi/img-query.

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9) Harborne, JB. Phytochemical methods In: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Chapman and Hall, U.K. ICMR, 1998, pp 56-99.

10) Trease GE, Evans WC. Textbook of Pharmacognosy.Published by BalliereTindall, London, 1985.

11) Chaudhari RD. Herbal drug industry. Eastern Publishers, New Delhi, 1996, pp 21-29.

12) Iyenger MA and Nayak SGK, Anatomy of crude drugs, Navayuga press, Udupi, 1991, pp 42-54.

13) Geethalakshmi R. et. al., International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. 2010; 2(5): 976- 979.

14) Abdul HameedAkhtar, Kamal Uddin Ahmad. Antiulcerogenicevaluation of the methanolic extracts of some indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan in aspirin-ulcerated rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology1995; 46:16.

15) Kumar S, Kumar V, Prakash OM. Pharmacognosticstudy and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemon lanceolatus leaf. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1(3) :177–181.

16) Rajasekaran A, Arivukkarasu R, Murugesh S. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of AdenemahyssopifoliumG. Don in a rat model. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011; 3(7):523–526.

17) Akpan EJ, Okokon JE, Etuk IC. Antiplasmodial and antipyretic studies on root extracts of Anthocleistadjalonensisagainst Plasmodium berghei. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2012;2(1):36–42.

18) Ansari S.H, Essentials of pharmacognosy. Birla Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 2006; pp 139-145.
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