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Comparative evaluation of In-Vitro Antihelminthic activity of Bauhinia tomentosa

Pattewar Aditya1*, Kawtikwar Pandurang1, Dawalbaje Atul1, Reddy Gajanan Kotlgaonkar2, Pawar Prashant2, Honmane Pravin2, Mitkari Umakant3, Jamkhande Prasad1
  1. Nephrology Department, National Medical Center "La Raza", IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico
  2. R.C.P. Kasegaon, Sangli, (Maharashtra) IndiaNephrology Department, HGR 25, IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico
  3. SVERI’s College of Pharmacy, Pandharpur, (Maharashtra) India
Corresponding Author: Adiytya M. Pattewar , School of Pharmacy, S. R. T. M. University, Nanded, 431606 (India). Email - adi4ever@rocketmail.com
Date of Submission: 14-02-2013 Date of Acceptance: 09-03-2013 Conflict of Interest: NIL Source of Support: NONE
Citation: Pattewar Aditya*, Kawtikwar Pandurang, Dawalbaje Atul, Reddy Gajanan Kotlgaonkar, Pawar Prashant, Honmane Pravin, Mitkari Umakant, Jamkhande Prasad. “Comparative evaluation of In-Vitro Antihelminthic activity of Bauhinia tomentosa” Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., April- June 2013, 5(2): 109-114.. doi: doi number
Copyright: © 2013 IJDDR, Pattewar Aditya et al. This is an open access paper distributed under the copyright agreement with Serials Publication, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Abstract

The traditional systems of medicine have always been considered as priceless tank of new bio-active molecules with immense medicinal and pharmacological importance. Most of the traditional systems are based on use of plant as medicine, but now day’s use of different medicinal plant is neglected because of lack of scientific data and proofs committing their medicinal importance. Through this study we have proved the anthelmintic activity of one Indian medicinal plant Bauhinia tomentosa family Caesalpiniaceae. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by using common method of Ajaiyeoba with some minor modification against two worms Pheritema postuma, family Megascolecidae and Ascaris lumbricoides, family Ascarididae. Our in vitro study concludes that plant Bauhinia tomentosa possesses good anthelmintic activity, so it is recommended to consider Bauhinia tomentosa and other such plant of traditional systems seriously and must be tested for in-vivo activity so as to prove and promote their beneficial use in small ruminants.

Key words

Bauhinia tomentosa, Anthelmintic activity, Pheritema postuma, Ascaris lumbricoides, Piperazine citrate

INTRODUCTION

WHO recently stated that the burden due to helminth infection is equivalent to 50% of that of malaria and 25% of that of HIV/AIDS; approximately 2.9 billion people are infected with nematode all over the world and in China alone 63% of the total population is infected with either one of the nematode species [1]. In case of other animals also gastrointestinal parasites causes infections that diminish the animal survival, growth rates and reproductive performance [4]. Morbidity from nematodes is common with diabetes and lung cancer [2-3]. But mortality is considerably low as compared to large number of infections and still it causes total over 500,000 deaths annually. Drugs for the treatment of paracitic infections are usually expensive and some time out of reach for the populations of under developing and developing countries [5]. Although number of drugs are available for treating parasitic infections most of the drugs suffering from the problems of resistance, reinfection after removal of drug therapy and side effect like nausea, intestinal disturbances and giddiness during therapy. [6-11]
Hookworms causes iron-deficiency anemia to 26.7 million people annually and it is most devastating to children because it leads to stunted growth and impaired mental and intellectual development of children [6], common types of infections caused by nematodes are Ascariasis, Ancylostomiasis, Trichuriasis, Enterobiasis, Filariasis, Strongyloidiasis, Onchocerciasis, Trichinosis, Blindness and Anemia. [3].
So to develop safe alternatives to treat helminth infection is firmly recommended now days. With respect to same objective in this study we had made an attempt to evaluate herbal plant for its antihelmintic activity. Our attempt was specially directed to evaluate and compare its anthelmintic potential with drug used now days and here it was piperazine citrate. We had chosen to go with ayurveda approach because ayurveda therapy is regarded as safest system of traditional medicine and chances of development of resistance are also low with this system. The plant Bauhinia tomentosa belongs to family Caesalpiniaceae had been reported for its anthelmintic use in ancient literature, but its activity was not scientifically proved, so through this study we had evaluated and proved the anthelmintic activity of Bauhinia tomentosa scientifically. [10, 11]

MATERIALS AND METHODS

I. Plant used:

The root of Bauhinia tomentosa, family Caesalpiniaceae was purchased from authorized medicinal and herbal plants dealer in market; Purchased plant material was confirmed and authenticated by Botany Department of School of Life science, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded. [10, 11]

II. Test animal:

Test parasites used for study was Pheritema postuma, family Megascolecidae commonly known as Indian earthworm; and Ascaris lumbricoides, family Ascarididae because of their anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal round worm parasite of human being. Ascaris lumbricoides is often considered as common cause of intestinal infection in livestock. Numbers of studies has used Ascaris lumbricoides and Pheritema postuma as model parasite to evaluate in-vitro anthelmintic activity [13-15]. Literature states that substances which are toxic to earthworms also show toxic effects against most of the worms [13-17]. Parasites under study were collected from SGM College, Karad. Test worms selected for studies were uniform in size. [18-21]

EXPERIMENTAL:

I. Preparation of extract:

Collected roots were well dried and ground in to powder form; about 250g of root powder was used for extraction made by using soxhelation and maceration method for preparation of ethanolic and aqueous extract respectively. Solvents used for extraction were ethanol and water. Freshly prepared extract was concentrated under controlled temperature condition so as to get powdered form of crude extract; whatever the product obtained was considered as 100% and was used for making further dilutions of different concentrations as shown in Table- 1.

II. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation:

The presence of tannins, saponins, glycosides and alkaloids in prepared extract were confirmed by performing general chemical tests for presence of respective chemical constituents as shown in Table - 2. [25-26]

III. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity:

Dilutions were divided in to three main groups as A (aqueous), B (ethanolic) and C (Combination of aqueous and alcoholic extract 1:1) each group was subdivided in to four subgroups of different concentration as 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%, as shown in Table - 1. Solvent used for dilution was distilled water. [18, 21, 22] One group was composed of water and it was considered as controlled group, in one group standard drug piperazine citrate was used at concentration of 10%. [18, 20-21]
The parasites were first placed in previously marked Petri Plates as per code of identification, then one parasite was placed in each plate after that extract was poured in Petri plates and observations were recorded as time required to get consecutive attacks of paralysis and finally time required for the complete death of parasite. Death of parasite was generally observed after three consecutive attacks and it was confirmed by pointing with needle on the body of parasite. [22-25]

RESULT:

Results of study were recorded as shown in table-3 as in the form of time required to get consecutive attacks of paralysis and at the end time required for complete death of parasite. At lower concentration range of 10% (A1, B1, C1) death of parasite was not observed but further increase in concentration causes death of parasites in dose dependent manner as shown in graph and observation table.
Results were also plotted as shown in graph for comparison of antihelmintic potency of both extracts

DISCUSSION:

Both the extracts of plant were showing good anthelmintic activity against both parasites when compared with standard used (Piperazine citrate), especially dose of extract of 100% concentration was found very potent. Alcoholic extract was showing quite more potency as compared to aqueous, while combination of two extract was found even more potent as compared to individual potency of both extracts; from which it can be concluded that combination of extracts were showing additive effect and potentiate each other’s activity. Anthelmintic activity of plant may be due to presence of saponins, tannins and alkaloids, because saponins, tannins and alkaloids have been already reported responsible for anthelmintic activity of various plant extracts. [27, 28]
In vitro screening of plant for their potential anthelmintic activity may not correlate in vivo activity and toxicity profile of plants and although literature specifies that there is no correlation between in vitro and in vivo doses of plant extracts. The importance of in vitro testing lies in the fact that it permits the rapid assessment of plant extracts which can be used as candidate for in vivo testing.
Now it is well accepted that helminthiasis is one of the major cause of ill health of livestock especially in case of the tropical countries mostly including rest of world. So keeping in mind this huge burden of ill health the availability of commercial drugs may be inadequate. The phytochemical screening of medicinal plants fallowed by controlled anthelmintic trials through control strategies may offer increased possibility of getting effective and economical control measures this of parasitic diseases.

CONCLUSION

Finally study concludes that Bauhinia tomentosa have significant anthelmintic activity. The plant might have potential to be developed as useful economic, anthelmintic herbal drug. So study also recommends to conceder Bauhinia tomentosa and other such plant of traditional systems more seriously and must be tested for in-vivo activity so as to prove and promote their beneficial use in small ruminants.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

Authors convey sincere thanks to Dr. C.S. Magdum, Principal KES’s R.C.P. Kasegaon, for providing necessary facilities required for our research work. Authors are also thankful to Botany Departments of School of Life science, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded and SGM College Karad for helping us in authentication of collected plant and providing parasites required for study.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

No.

Tables at a glance

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