Reach Us +44-7480-022449

6. Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report

Rajani Chauhan2, Km. Ruby1*, Jaya Dwivedi1
  1. Department of Chemistry, Banasthali University, Tonk, Rajasthan, 304022, India.
  2. Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, Tonk, Rajasthan, 304022, India
Corresponding Author: Km. Ruby E-Mail: rubysainiresearch@gmail.com
Received: 08 October 2012 Accepted: 09 November 2012
Citation: Rajani Chauhan2, Km. Ruby1*, Jaya Dwivedi1 “Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report” Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., October-December 2012, 4(4): 50-68
Copyright: © 2012 IJDDR, Km. Ruby et al. This is an open access paper distributed under the copyright agreement with Serials Publication, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Related article at Pubmed, Scholar Google
 

Abstract

Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum, Allium cepa, Bergenia ligulata, Bergenia ciliata, Bergenia stracheyi, Hamamelis virginiana Ruscus aculeatus, Terminalia chebula Vaccinium myrtillus, Verbascum thapus etc.

Key words

Herbs, Golden treatment, Piles, Phytomedicine Phytochemicals

INTRODUCTION

Piles or a hemorrhoid is a varicose and often inflamed condition of the veins, inside or just outside the rectum or hemorrhoids are swollen dilated or bulging inflamed veins that develop in the lower rectum caused by increased pressure in the rectal veins. There are two types of hemorrhoids external hemorrhoids and internal hemorrhoids. There are many natural treatments for hemorrhoids or piles, herbs are one of them. 1, 2

Golden herb used in Piles treatment

1. Aesculus hippocastanum

PREFACE

Aesculus hippocastanum is commonly known as horse chestnut. It is large deciduous, rapidly-growing trees have height of 36 meters. It is native to the countries of the Balkan Peninsula, but because of its large, showy flower clusters the tree is cultivated worldwide for its beauty. Flowers are white or pink with a small red spot. Leaves are large, consisting of either five or seven leaflets and the fruit is round with a thick, green, spiny husk containing a glossy brown seed (chestnut or conker). While the common name for the tree is horse chestnut, it is also known as buckeye, and like other buckeyes, is a member of the Hippocastanaceae family, rather than the chestnut family (Castanea). The name, horse chestnut, is believed to be derived from the brown conkers that look similar to chestnuts and because a horseshoe shaped mark (complete with spots resembling horseshoe nails) is left on the twig when the leaves drop off in autumn.3-5

Secondary metabolites

Aaescin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Proanthocyanidin, Coumarins, Fraxin and Aesculin.5-8

Therapeutic use in piles

Piles can also be healed completely using horse chestnut which is found to be one of the excellent herbal cures for the problem of same. The extract of this particular herb is found to contain an excellent enzyme, namely aescin is known to show anti inflammatory properties which can be used in curing the problem of piles. Taking small quantity of horse chestnut extract can be beneficial in keeping the vein walls healthier and hence preventing the problem of piles. Being a toxic herb, it should not be consumed in large quantities.9-11

Allium cepa

PREFACE
The Allium cepa resembles the greens of a leek and produces soft, white flowers. The onion itself grows as a bulb under the soil with the plant's roots extending from its base. Allium cepa is an evergreen Bulb growing to 0.6 m. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. and can grow in very alkaline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil. Bulb - raw or cooked. A very versatile food, the bulb can be 10cm or more in diameter and is widely used in most countries of the world. Eaten raw, it can be sliced up and used in salads, sandwich fillings etc, it can be baked or boiled as a vegetable in its own right and is also commonly used as a flavouring in soups, stews and many other cooked dishes. Some cultivars have been selected for their smaller and often hotter bulbs and these are used for making pickles. Leaves - raw or cooked. There are some cultivars, the spring onions, that have been selected for their leaves and are used in salads whilst still young and actively growing - the bulb is much smaller than in other cultivars and is usually eaten with the leaves. By successional sowing, they can be available at any time of the year. The flowers are somewhat dry and are less pleasant than many other species.12
The seeds are sprouted and eaten. They have a delicious onion, flavour.12

Secondary metabolites

(+)L-S-Prop-1-enyl-cysteine-s-oxide.,1(F)-betafructosyl- sucrose ., 2-Methyl-but-2-en-1-al .,2- Methyl-butyr-2-aldehyde 4-Alpha-methylzymostenol .,4-S-Oxide(trans)dec-2-ene,5-ethyl- 4,6,7-Trithia (diastereomer) .,4-S-Oxide(trans)dec-2- ene,5-ethyl-4,6,7-trithia .,4-S-Oxide(trans/cis)deca- 2,8-diene,5-ethyl-4,6,7-thithia(diastereomer).,4- SOxide (trans/ trans)deca-2,8-diene,5-ethyl-4,6,7- thithia(diastereomer).,4-S Oxide(trans/trans)deca- 2,8-diene,5-ethyl-4,6,7-thithia.,6(G)-Beta-fructosylsucrose2,3- Dimethylbicyclo(2,2,1)hexan e-5-oxide- 5,6-dithia(1,2,3,4-alpha-5-beta).,2,3-Dimethylthiophene., 2,4-Dimethylthioph ene.,24- Methylenecycloartanol28-Iso-fucosterol.,31-Norcycloartenol., 31-Nor-lanoste nol.,9,10,13- Trihydroxy-octadec-11-enoicacid.,9,12,13- Trihydroxy-octadec-10-enoic acid .,Abscisic acid Acetal .,Acetic acid .,Adenosine .,Allicin .,Alliin gamma-glutamyl-peptide .,Alliin Allium cepa polysaccharide .,Allyl-propyl-disulfide .,Alpha amyrin .,Alpha linolenic acid Alpha-sitosterol .,Arabinose .,Ascorbic acid .,Benzyl-iso-thiocyanate .,Beta carotene Beta-sitosterol .,Butane-cis-1-cis-4-dithial- S-S-dioxide,2,3-dimethyl.,Caffeic acid .,Calcium oxalate .,Catechol .,Cepaene 1 .,Cepaene 2-A .,Cepaene 2-B .,Cepaene 3 .,Cepaene 4-A .,Cepaene 4- B .,Cholest-7-en-3-beta-ol.,Cholesterol .,Choline .,Cis-Propanethial-s-oxide .,Cis-zweibelane .,Citric acid.,Cyanidin bioside .,Cyanidin diglycoside .,Cyanidin monoglycoside .,Cyanidin-3-Olaminariobioside .,Cyclo-(2,1,1)-heptane-5-oxide,cis- 2,3-dimethyl-5,6-dithia.,Cyclo-(2,1,1)-heptane-5- oxide,trans-2,3-dimethyl-5,6- dithia.,Cycloalliin.,Cycloartanol.,
Cycloartenol.,Cycloeucalenol .,Cysteine Di-n-propyldisulfide .,Dimethyl-trisulfide .,Diphenylamine ., Ferulic acid., Fructose .,Gamma-gultamyl leucine .,Gamma-glutamyl-S-(Beta-carboxy-Beta-methylethyl)- cysteinyl glycine .,Gamma-L-glutamyl cysteine .,Gamma-L-glutamyl-L-iso-leucine Gamma-L Lglutamyl- L-valine .,Gamma-L-glutamyl-S-(2- carboxy-N-propyl)cysteine Gamma-L-glutamyl-S-(2- carboxy-propyl)-L-cysteinyl glycine ethyl ester .,Gamma-L-glutamyl-S-propenyl cysteine sulfoxide .,Glucofructan (Allium cepa) .,Glucose .,Glutamic acid .,Glutathione .,Glycine .,Glycolic acid .,Gramisterol .,Iso-quercitrin Iso-rhamnetin 4’-Obeta- D-glucoside .,Iso-rhamnetin .,Kaempferol .,Kaempferol-3,4’-di-O-beta-D-glucoside .,Kaempferol-4’,7-di-O-beta-D-glucoside .,Kaempferol-4’-0-beta-D-glucoside .,L-2-Propenylcysteine sulfoxide .,L-Gamma-glutamylphenylalanine ethyl ester .,L-Gamma-glutamylphenylalanine .,Gamma-L-glutamyl-L-arginine .,LMethyl- cysteine sulfoxide .,Lophenol .,Leutein.,Malic acid .,Melatonin.,Methionine methylsulfonium salt .,Methionine sulfone .,Methionine .,Methyl, 1- (methyl-sulfinyl).,propyl-disulfide .,Mevalonic acid.,N-Propyl mercaptan .,Nonadecanoic acid .,Oleanolic acid .,Oleic acid: .,Onion coat colorant .,Oxalic acid .,Palmitic acid .,Para-coumaric acid .,Para-hydroxybenzoic acid .,Pelargonidin monoglycoside Phloroglucinol carboxylic acid.,Phloroglucinol.,Prop-cis-enyl-disulfide .,Prop- (trans)-enyl propyl-trisulfide .,Propan-1-ol .,Propane- 1-thiol .,Propional .,Propionaldehyde .,Prostaglandin A .,Prostaglandin A-1 .,Prostaglandin B .,Prostaglandin E-1 .,Prostaglandin F .,Protocatechuic acid:.,Pyrocatechol .,Pyruvic acid.,Quercetin: Quercetin-3,4’-di-O-Beta-D-glucoside.,Quercetin- 4’,7-di-O-Beta-D-glucoside.,Quercetin -4-di-O-Beta- Dglucoside .,Raffinose .,Rhamnose .,Ribose .,Rutin .,S-(2-Carboxy-propyl) glutathione.,S-(beta-carboxybeta- methyl-L-ethyl)cysteine .,S-1-cis-propenyl ester methyl sulfinothioic acid .,S-1-Cis-propenyl ester propyl sulfinothioic acid S-1-Propenyl ester n-propyl sulfinothioic acid(cis) .,S-1-Propenyl ester n-propyl sulfinothioic acid(trans) .,S-1-Trans-propenyl ester methyl sulfinothioic acid .,S-1-Trans-propenyl ester propyl sulfinothioic acid.,S-Allyl-cysteine.,S-Methylcysteine sulfoxide S-N-Propyl ester N-propyl sulphinothioic acid .,S-Propyl ester propyl sulfinothioic acid S-Propyl-cysteine sulfoxide .,Satiomem .,Sinapic acid .,Sodium prop-(cis)-1-enylthiosulfate .,Sodium prop-(trans)-1-enyl-thiosulfate .,Sodium propyl-thiosulfate .,Spiraeoside.,Stearic acid.,Stigmasterol .,Succinic acid .,Sucrose .,Sugars .,Thiopropanal-S-oxide .,Thiopropional-S-oxide .,Valine .,Xylitol .,Xylose .,Zeaxanthin 13

Therapeutic use in piles

Onions are valuable in bleeding piles. About thirty grams of this vegetable should be finely rubbed in water and sixty grams of sugar added to it. It should be taken twice daily by the Patient. Onion is also useful in the treatment of dry piles. A crushed onion, skinned and roasted in aches, may be applied with beneficial results.9-13

Bergenia ciliata

PREFACE
Bergenia ciliata is the source of Pashanbheda after Bergenia ligulata. Bergenia ciliata leaves are suborbicular or broadly obovate, rounded at base and apex, margin finely denticulate and densely ciliata, leaves otherwise glaborous. Flowers green, lobes acute, denticulate near apex; petals obovate, white tinged pink. Flowering time of Bergenia ciliata is February to April and fruiting time is March to July.It is found in Afghanistan, South Tibet, Bhutan (Phuntsoling district, Deothang district, Ha district and Mongar district. In India it is found in Himalayas (Kumaon), Meghalaya, Lushai hills West Bengal (Darjeeling, Labha, Takdah, Rimbick( Kalimpong), Arunachal Pradesh (Nyam Jang Chu), Kyongnosla, Changu, Karponanag, Lachen to Thongu, Nathang, Prekchu-Tsokha, Pangolakha- Subaney Dara, Gangtok (domesticated) in sikkim.14-16

Secondary metabolites

Tannic acid, Gallic acid, Glucose, Mucilage, Wax, Metarbin, Albumen, Mineral Salts, Bergenin, (+)- Catechin, Gallicin. 14-16

Therapeutic use in piles

Bergenia ciliata used in piles treatment in the form of tinctures and powder. 14-16

Bergenia ligulata

PREFACE
Bergenia ligulata syn. Saxifraga ligulata is being widely accepted under this name. the use of various names attributed to it, viz., Pashanbheda, Pashana, Zakhmehayat, Asmaribheda, Ashmabhid, Ashmabhed, Nagabhid, Upalbhedak, Parwatbhed and Shilabhed (dissolving or piercing stones or slabs) etc. It belongs to family saxifragaceae. Its medicinally used part is rhizome. The plant Bergenia ligulata is chief botanical source of pashanbheda drug used in indigenous system of medicine and incorporated in medical texts and material media. It is a perennial, climbing plant that grows well in moist and shady areas, especially in the foothills of the Himalayas and the Khasi hills Assam. The stems show thick, ovate and bright red leaves seasonally. The flowers are white, pink or purple.14, 16, 17

Secondary metabolites

Paashaanolactone, Arbutin, Bergenin, Catechin Gallic acid, Starch, Minerals, Vitamins, Albumin, Glucose, Mucilage, Coumarin, Tannic acid, Steroids, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Tannins, Glycosides, Carbohydrates and Saponins , M-Sitosterol, Stigmesterol. 14, 16, 17

Therapeutic use in piles

Bergenia ligulata root, rhizome and leaf powder and extract in water is used by local tribes. 14, 16, 17

Bergenia stracheyi

PREFECE
Bergenia stracheyi (HK.) is a rhizometic herb species found in Afghanistan to Uttarakhand, between 3300- 4500 m in alpine slopes. W. Himalayas from 2700- 4700 m, Afghanistan, Tadzhikistan. Commonly growing on moist rocky slopes in Kashmir, Baltistan, Gilgit, Chitral and Upper Kaghan areas on much higher and colder altitudes. The plant, rather small in stature, is very attractive in autumn when the leaf colour changes to red.14,16,18

Secondary metabolites

Free anthraquinone, Ascorbic acid, Carbohydrates, Phenolics, Saponins, Steroids, Bergecins A, Bergecins B, Bergenin. 14,16,18

Therapeutic use in piles

Bergenia stracheyi used in piles as a form of powder and tincture by the local tribes of Pithoragarh. 14,16,18

Brassica rapa

PREFACE
Brassica rapa commonly known as turnip is one of the most commonly grown and widely adapted root crops, as general farm crop, truck crop, or homegarden crop. Roots eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable, and tops as potherb like spinach. Roots also grown for feeding to livestock during fall and winter. Biennial herb with swollen tuberous whitefleshed taproot, lacking a neck; leaves light to medium green, hairy or bristly, stalked, lyratepinnatifid, 30–50 cm long, stem-leaves sometimes glaucous with clasping base; flowers bright yellow, sepals spreading: petals 6–10 mm long, those in anthesis close together and commonly overtopping the unopened buds; outer 2 stamens curved outwards at base and much shorter than inner stamens; fruit 4–6.5 cm long, with long tapering beak, on divaricate-ascending pedicels 3.2–6.5 cm long; seeds blackish or reddish-brown, 1.5–2 mm in diameter. Fl. and fr. second spring. Cultivated in Europe for over 4000 years, probably native to central and southern Europe, now spread throughout world, including most parts of the tropics.19

Secondary metabolites

Protein, Fat, Total carbohydrate, Fiber, Ash, Ca, Fe, Na, K, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Ascorbic acid , Erucic, Linoleic, and Linolenic acids.20,21

Therapeutic use in piles

The leaves of turnip have been found useful in this disease. The juice of these leaves should be extracted and 150 ml given to the patient. It is, however, necessary to take a proper diet of raw fruits and vegetables while taking this juice. For better results, 50 ml of the juice should be mixed with equal quantities of juices of watercress, spinach, and carrots. 9-13

Ficus carica

PREFACE
Ficus constituted one of the largest genera of medicinal plants with about 750 species of woody plants, trees, and shrubs primarily occurring in subtropical and tropical regions through out the world. The genus is remarkable for the large variation in the habits of its species.22 In India, the most important species of Ficus are F. bengalensis, F. carica, Ficus racemosa and F. elastica. Ficus carica is commonly referred as “ Fig". Various parts of the plant like bark, leaves, tender shoots, fruits, seeds, and latex are medicinally important. The fig is a very nourishing food and used in industrial products. The fig is a deciduous tree, to 50 ft tall, but more typically to a height of 10 - 30 ft. The large, wavy-margined leaves are usually 5 lobed but may have only 4 or 3 lobes. The leaves are conspicuously palmately veined. Their branches are muscular and twisting, spreading wider than they are tall. Fig wood is weak and decays rapidly. The trunk often bears large nodal tumors, where branches have been shed or removed. The twigs are terete and pithy rather than woody. The sap contains copious milky latex.23- 32

Secondary metabolites

Fiber, Copper, Manganese, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium, Vitamin K, Flavonoids, Polyphenols, Arabinose, M-amyrins, M-carotines, Glycosides, M- setosterols, Xanthotoxol, Campesterol, Hentriacontanol, , Stigmasterol, Euphorbol and its Hexacosanate, Iingenol Taraxerone, Bergaptene, Stigmasterol, Sitosterol Tyrosine. Ficusin, Taraxasterol, Rutin, Sapogenin, Calotropenyl acetate, Lepeolacetate, Oleanolic Caoutchouc, Resin, Albumin, Cerin, Sugar, Malic acid, Rennin, Proteolytic enzymes, Diastase, Esterase, Lipase, Catalase, Peroxidase. 33-36

Therapeutic use in piles

Three of four figs should be soaked overnight in water after being cleaned thoroughly in hot water. They should be taken first thing in the morning along with the water in which they were soaked. They should also be taken in evening in the similar manner.2, 9-11

Hamamelis virginiana

PREFACE
Hamamelis virginiana is commonly known as Witch-Hazel grows best in sun or partial shade and in light, moist soil. The plant tolerates some drought and grows slowly. It grows 20 to 30 feet tall and spreads 15 to 25 feet forming a multistemmed, shrubby, round, somewhat asymmetrical ball. Removing the lower branches helps produce a more tree-form multistemmed specimen but regular minor pruning will be required to maintain it in this form since the plant suckers freely from the base of the trunk. The fragrant flowers are produced in late fall to mearly winter and have straplike, yellow petals and is the last shrub to flower during the year. The flowers are more interesting than ornamental, however, there are selections with more showy flowers. The fall color is yellow and often is at its peak when the flowers are out. Plants are found along stream banks in the shade in its native range where they appear open and poorly branched. However, under cultivation in full or partial sun they develop a fuller, rounded crown. Probably not for clay soils. Although galls are frequently found on the leaves, they are usually not serious pests on the plant.37

Secondary metabolites

Tannin, Gallic acid, Catechins, Proanthocyanins, Kaempferol, Quercetin, Carvacro leugenol, Hexenol, Choline, and Saponins.38

Therapeutic use in piles

Witch hazel gel can also be used in curing hemorrhoids or bleeding piles entirely. Applying a little of witch hazel around the rectum can be advantageous in reducing the inflammation as well as hemorrhage. Witch hazel is proved to be efficient in curing the pain, burning sensation, swelling and discomfort caused due to piles. This herb is known to be one of the best astringents which can also be used in curing several other ailments like piles.2, 49

Mangifera indica

PREFACE
The genus Mangifera originates in tropical Asia, with the greatest number of species found in Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and the Malay Peninsula. The mostcultivated Mangifera species, M. indica (mango), has its origins in India and Myanmar. Mangos belong to the genus Mangifera of the family Anacardiaceae. The genus Mangifera contains several species that bear edible fruit. Most of the fruit trees that are commonly known as mangos belong to the species Mangifera indica. The other edible Mangifera species generally have lower quality fruit and are commonly referred to as wild mangos. Mango has become naturalized and adapted throughout the tropics and subtropics. Much of the spread and naturalization has occurred in conjunction with the spread of human populations, and as such, the mango plays an important part in the diet and cuisine of many diverse cultures. There are over 1000 named mango varieties throughout the world, which is a testament to their value to humankind. Mango is a common garden tree throughout the tropics. When ripe, this delicious dessert fruit is particularly high in vitamin A. The fruit is also eaten green, processed into pickles, pulps, jams, and chutneys, and is frozen or dried. The fruit is also an important source of sustenance for birds, bats, insects, and mammals. Although grown widely, mangos prefer a warm, frostfree climate with a well defined winter dry season. Rain and high humidity during flowering and fruit development reduces fruit yields. The tree generally flowers in mid- to late winter, with fruit maturing in the early to mid-summer months. Mango trees are usually between 3 and 10 m (10–33 ft) tall but can reach up to 30 m (100 ft) in some forest situations. The canopy is evergreen with a generally spreading habit. The heavy canopy of the mango is a source of shelter and shade for both animals and human.39-41

Secondary metabolites

Alkaloids, Saponins, Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Sterols, Flavonoids, Phenolic and Tannins.42

Therapeutic use in piles

Mango seeds are an effective remedy for bleeding piles. The seeds should be collected during the mango season, dried in the shade, powdered, and kept stored for use as medicine. This powder should be given in doses of about one and a half to two grams with or without honey, twice daily.2

Momordica charantia

PREFACE
Momordica Charantia (Bitter melon or Bitter guard) is a flowering vine in the family Cucurbitaceae.
Leaves: simple, usually palmately 5-7 lobed, tendrils unbranched or 2 branched. The herbaceous, tendrilbearing vine grows to 5 m. It bears simple, alternate leaves 4–12 cm across, with 3–7 deeply separated lobes.
Fruit: ovoid, ellipsoid, or spindle shaped, usually ridged or warty, dehiscent irregularly as a 3 valved fleshy capsule or indehiscent. The fruit has a distinct warty looking exterior and an oblong shape. It is hollow in cross-section, with a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounding a central seed cavity filled with large flat seeds and pith. Seeds and pith appear white in unripe fruits, ripening to red; the flesh is crunchy and watery in texture, similar to cucumber, chayote or green bell pepper. The skin is tender and edible. The fully ripe fruit turns orange and mushy. Bitter melon comes in a variety of shapes and sizes. The typical Chinese phenotype is 20–30 cm long, oblong with bluntly tapering ends and pale green in color, with a gently undulating, warty surface. The bitter melon more typical of India has a narrower shape with pointed ends, and a surface covered with jagged, triangular "teeth" and ridges. Coloration is green or white. Between these two extremes is any number of intermediate forms. Some bear miniature fruit of only 6–10 cm in length, which may be served individually as stuffed vegetables. These miniature fruit are popular in Southeast Asia as well as India. In Panama bitter melon is known as Balsamino. The pods are smaller and bright orange when ripe with very sweet red seeds.
Flowers: Staminate flowers usually solitary on a bracteate scape, hypanthium shallow, calyx 5 lobed, petals 5, usually yellow, distinct, 1-3 with incurved scales at base, stamens usually 3, inserted toward base of hypanthium, filaments distinct, broad, anthers distinct or coherent, 2 of them dithecal, the other monothecal, cells curved or flexuous; pistillate flowers usually solitary on a bracteate scape, hypanthium ovoid to spindle shaped, perianth usually smaller than in staminate flowers, staminodes absent or 3, ovules numerous, horizontal, stigmas 3, 2 lobed. Seeds few to numerous, ovate, usually sculptured. Each plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. Though it has been claimed that bitter melon’s bitterness comes from quinine, no evidence could be located supporting this claim.2,43

Secondary metabolites

Glycosides, Saponins, Alkaloids, Reducing sugars, Resins, Phenolic constituents, Fixed oil , Free acids, Charantin, Charine, Cryptoxanthin, Cucurbitins, Cucurbitacins, Cucurbitanes, Cycloartenols, Diosgenin, Elaeostearic acids, Erythrodiol, Galacturonic acids, Gentisic acid, Goyaglycosides, Goyasaponins, Guanylate cyclase inhibitors, Gypsogenin, Hydroxytryptamines, Karounidiols, Lanosterol, Lauric acid, Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, Momorcharasides, Momorcharins, Momordenol, Momordicilin, Momordicins, Momordicinin, Momordicosides, Momordin, Momordolo, Multiflorenol, Myristic acid, Nerolidol, Oleanolic acid, Oleic acid, Oxalic acid, Pentadecans, Peptides, Petroselinic acid, Polypeptides, Proteins, Ribosomeinactivating proteins, Rosmarinic acid, Rubixanthin, Spinasterol, Steroidal glycosides, Stigmastadiols, Stigmasterol, Taraxerol, Trehalose, Trypsin inhibitors, Uracil, Vacine, V-insulin, Verbascoside, Vicine, Zeatin, Zeatin riboside, Zeaxanthin, Zeinoxanthin, Amino acids, Aspartic acid, Serine, Glutamic acid, Thscinne, Alanine, Pipecolic acid, Ascorbigen, Beta-sitosterol-d-glucoside, Citrulline, Elasterol, Flavochrome, Lutein, Lycopene, Pipecolic acid. 44,45

Therapeutic use in piles

The juice of the fresh leaves of bitter gourd is also valuable in piles. Three teaspoons of the leaf juice, mixed with a glass of buttermilk, should be taken every morning for treating this condition. A paste of the roots of the bitter gourd plant can also be applied over piles with beneficial results.2,9-11

Oryza sativa

PREFACE
An annual grass with erect culms 0.6-2 m tall usually with four to five tillers. Inflorescence a loose terminal panicle of perfect flowers; each panicle branch bearing a number of spikelets, each with a single floret. Each flower is surrounded by a lemma and palea at the base of which are two small glumes. The lemmas may be awnless or variously awned. The rice grain enclosed by the lemma and palea (hull) varies in size, texture and colour. Each panicle holds 100- 150 seeds. Practically all the paddy straw from rice crops in the tropics is conserved as hay for animal feeding and is usually stacked around poles in the house compound. Medling, (1972) under high rainfall conditions (3 997 mm) at Gualaca, Panama, found that baling the straw with large roller balers was effective and that the straw bales would stay in the field without major deterioration, while grass hay (Hyparrhenia rufa and other grasses) suffered serious deterioration.46

Secondary metabolites

Orizaterpenol, Orizaterpenoid, Orizaterpenyl benzoate, Orizanor-diterpenyl benzoate, Orizaditerpenyl benzoate 47-48

Therapeutic use in piles

Rice has a very low fiber content and is, therefore, extremely soothing to the digestive system. A thick gruel of rice, mixed with a glass of buttermilk and a ripe banana, given twice a day, is a very nutritious diet for a patient with piles. 2,9-11

Ruscus aculeatus

PREFACE
Ruscus aculeatus (butcher’s broom) is a member of the Liliaceae family and is native to Mediterranean Europe and Africa. It has tough, green, erect, striated stems that send out numerous short branches and very rigid leaves that are actually extensions of the stem and terminate in a single sharp spine. The small greenish-white flowers grow from the center of the leaves and bloom in the early spring. The thick root, typically collected in autumn, is used medicinally. The root has no odor, but has an initially sweetish taste that then turns slightly acrid.2

Secondary metabolites

Steroidal sapogenins, Saponins, Sterols, Triterpenes, Flavonoids, Coumarins, Sparteine, Tyramine, Glycolic acid. 49-54

Therapeutic use in piles

Butcher’s broom is proved to be one of the commonly used herbs in the case of piles. Steroids like ruscogenins are found to be present in this herb, namely butcher’s broom. Studies have revealed that these steroids can very effectively help in reducing the tenderness as well as bleeding due to the problem of piles. Taking small quantities of its extract everyday can be helpful in strengthening the blood vessels as well as preventing the problem to an extent.55

Raphanus sativus

PREFACE
Raphanus sativus introduced annual or biennial plant consists of a rosette of leaves; somewhat later, it bolts and produces flowering stems up to 2½' tall. The basal leaves are up to 7" long and 2½" across; they are oblanceolate, coarsely crenate, and pinnately lobed. These lobes may be shallow or deep; the terminal lobe is always the largest. The surface of the basal leaves is usually rough from stiff hairs. The central stem is often reddish at the base, but light green elsewhere; it is either glabrous or covered with scattered stiff hairs. The upper side stems are very similar, except that there is often a red ring where they branch from the central stem. The alternate leaves on the stems are similar in appearance to the basal leaves, except that they are smaller, less likely to be deeply lobed, and narrowly ovate in shape. The central and upper stems terminate in racemes of flowers. Each flower is about 1/3" across, consisting of 4 pink or light purple petals, 4 light green sepals that are linear-oblong, a central pistil, and several stamens with yellow anthers. The blooming period occurs during the summer and lasts about 1–1½ months. Each flower is replaced by a silique that contains 2-3 seeds. This silique is rather short and spongy, but it has a long beak. There is very little constriction between the seeds, if any. The seeds are oval-shaped, slightly flattened, and reddish brown. The root system consists of a stout taproot that is somewhat fleshy. It is often reddish, but other color forms occur. This plant spreads by reseeding itself. The preference is full sun and moist to mesic soil that is fertile and loamy. The Garden Radish also does well in slightly sandy soil if it is sufficiently moist and fertile. It develops rapidly from seed during the spring and bolts during hot summer weather. The leaves often have holes from various insect pests.56

Secondary metabolites

Raphanin, Glucosilinates, Vitamin C, Volatile oil.57

Therapeutic use in piles

White radish is considered highly valuable in piles; 100 mg of grated radish mixed with a teaspoon of honey may be taken twice daily. This vegetable can also be taken in the form of juice mixed with a pinch of salt. White radish, well ground into a paste in milk can also be applied over inflamed pile masses to relieve pain and swelling. 57

Sesamum indicum

PREFACE
Sesamum indicum Linn. (Pedaliaceae) is an annual shrub with white bell-shaped flowers with a hint of blue,red or yellow with branches or without branches.It is grown for the production of seeds which is rich in oil content. It comes in a variety of colors, cream-white to charcoal-black. In general, the paler varieties ofsesame seem to be more valued in West and Middle East, while the black varieties are prized in the Far East. It is commonly known as Til (Hindi), hu ma (Chinese), sésame (French), goma (Japanese), gergelim (Portuguese) and ajonjolí (Spanish). Sesame is found in tropical, subtropical, and southern temperate areas of the world, particularly in India,China, SouthAmerica and Africa. It has utmost economical importance and is primarily grown by small farmers in developing countries. The plant grows best in tropical climates (spring to fall). Sesame grows best in sandy welldrained soil with hot climate and moderate rainfall. It is propagated by seed sown in spring and it takes about four months for the seeds to ripen fully. Depending on conditions, varieties grow from about 0.5 to 2.5 m tall. The leaves are ovate, opposite, grow alternately up the stem and are deeply veined. The flowers are white, shaped like a trumpet, on short peduncles in axils of leaves. The fruit, is about 2.5 cm (l) is an oblong capsule with small seeds. Each plant may grow 15-20 fruits, which contain 70-100 seeds. Plants and fruits mature in 80-100 days after sowing. In threshing, capsule bursts open and seeds are scattered. Finally the seeds are cleaned, dried and packed in gunny bags.58

Secondary metabolites

Sesamin , Sesamolin, Sesamol, Sesaminol, Chlorosesamone (2-chloro- 5, 8-dihydroxy-3- 3methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone), Phenylethanoid glycosides, Sugarsequence, Sesamolinol, Anthrasesamones A, B and C 59-64

Therapeutic use in piles

Sesame seeds are also valuable in piles. They can be taken in the form of a decoction by boiling twenty grams of seeds in 500 ml of water till it is reduced by one-third, or as sweetmeats. Ground to paste with water, they can be given with butter for bleeding piles.2,9-11

Syzygium cumini

PREFACE
The genus Syzygium is one of the genera of the myrtle family Myrtaceae which is native to the tropics, particularly to tropical America and Australia. It has a worldwide, although highly uneven, distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. The genus comprises about 1 100 species, and has a native range that extends from Africa and Madagascar through southern Asia east through the Pacific. Its highest levels of diversity occur from Malaysia to northeastern Australia, where many species are very poorly known and many more have not been described taxonomically. Plants of this family are known to be rich in volatile oils which are reported for their uses in medicine65 and many fruits of the family have a rich history of uses both as edibles and as traditional medicines in divergent ethnobotanical practices throughout the tropical and subtropical world.66 Some of the edible species of Syzygium are planted throughout the tropics worldwide. Jambolan is a large evergreen and densely foliaceous mtree with greyish-brown thick bark, exfoliating in woody scales. The wood is whitish, close grained and durable; affords brown dyes and a kind of a gum Kino. The leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate to elliptic or obovate-elliptic with 6 to 12 centimeters long (extremely variable in shape, smooth and shining with numerous nerves uniting within the margin), the tip being broad and less acuminate. The panicles are borne mostly from the branchlets below the leaves, often being axillary or terminal, and are 4 to 6 centimeters long. Flowers are scented, greenish-white, in clusters of just a few or 10 to 40 and are round or oblong in shape and found in dichotomous paniculate cymes. The calyx is funnel-shaped, about 4 millimeters long, and toothed. The petals cohere and fall all together as a small disk. The stamens are numerous and about as long as the calyx. Several types, which differ in colour and size of fruits, including some improved races bearing purple to violet or white coloured flesh and seedless fruits have been developed. The fruits are berries and are often obviously oblong, 1.5 to 3.5 centimeters long, dark-purple or nearly black, luscious, fleshy, and edible; it contains a single large seed67,68 The plant produces small purple plums, which have a very sweet flavor, turning slightly astringent on the edges of the pulp as the fruit becomes mature. The dark violet colored ripe fruits give the impression the fruit of the olive tree both in weight and shape and have an astringent taste. The fruit has a combination of sweet, mildly sour and astringent flavour and tends to colour the tongue purple. 69

Secondary metabolites

Anthocyanins, Glucoside, Ellagic acid, Isoquercetin, Kaemferol myrecetin, Alkaloid, Jambosine, Glycoside jambolin or Antimellin Protein Calcium. Sugar, Mineral salts, Vitamins C, Vitamin C, Anthocyanins, Flavonoids.67, 70-73

Therapeutic use in piles

The jambul fruit is another effective remedy for bleeding piles. The fruit should be taken with salt every morning for two or three months during its season.2

Triticum aestivum

PREFACE
T. aestivum known only under cultivation; its nativity has been lost. Wheat evolved from wild grasses, probably somewhere in the Near East. A very likely place of origin is the area known in early historical times as the Fertile Crescent, a region with rich soils in the upper reaches of the Tigris- Euphrates drainage basin.Annual grass; culms simple, erect, hollow or pithy, glabrous, up to 1.2 m tall; leaves flat, narrow, 20–38 cm long, about 1.3 cm broad; spikes long, slender, dorsally compressed, somewhat flattened; rachis tough, not separating from spikelet at maturity; spikelets 2–5-flowered, relatively far apart on stem, slightly overlapping, nearly erect, pressed close to rachis; glumes keeled in upper half, firm, glabrous, shorter than the lemmas; lemmas awned or awnless, less than 1.3 cm long; palea as long as the lemma, remaining entire at maturity; caryopsis free-threshing, soft or hard, red or white. Hexaploid.74

Secondary metabolites

Tocopherols (vit. E), Essential fatty acids, Sitosterol, Ergosterol, Campesterol, Phospatidic, Glyceroinositophosphatidic acids, Phytoglycolipid, Serine 74,75

Therapeutic use in piles

Wheat grass juice used as an enema helps detoxify the walls of the piles. The general procedure is to give an enema with lukewarm or neem water. After waiting for twenty minutes, 90 to 120 ml of the wheat grass juice enema is given. This should be retained for fifteen minutes.2,9-11

Terminalia chebula

PREFACE
Terminalia Chebula is called the "king of medicines" in Tibet and is always listed first in the Ayurvedic meteria medica because of its extraordinary powers of healing. In Ayurveda it is considered to destroy all diseases and eliminate all waste from the body. At the same time, it is known to promote tissue growth and health. Modern science has found that Terminalia Chebula has a strong effect against the herpes simplex virus HSV, has antibacterial activity, and exhibits strong cardio tonic properties. Terminalia Chebula also has antioxidant components, which indicates it can increase the life of tissues. Yet another study shows the anti-tumor activity of Terminalia Chebula and another study shows that it has considerable effect in inhibiting the HIV virus which ultimately results in AIDS Thus, Terminalia Chebula can be seen to be a valuable addition to anyone's herbal collection. With its rejuvenating and cleansing properties, Terminalia Chebula is excellent for the digestive system. As a preventative supplement it has great anti viral attributes, as shown by its anti tumor and HIV action. It is also effective for alleviating constipation in general, and is helpful for vata persons because it works in the Triphala formula which is a well balanced digestive and rejuvenating aid. Terminalia chebula is found in the sub Himalayan tracks form Ravi eastwards to west Bengal and Assam, ascending up to at altitude of 1500m in the Himalayas, In the This tree is wild in the forests of Northern India, central provinces And Bengal, common in madras, Mysore and in the southern Parts of the Bombay presidency. A tree 15.24m in height & 1.5-2.4m in girth with a cylindrical bole of 4-9m, a rounded crown and spreading branched found throughout the greater parts of India. Bark dark brown often longitudinally cracked, exfoliating in woody scales, Leaves ovate or elliptic with a pair of large gland at the tip of the pedicel Flowers yellowish white; in terminal spikes, drupes ellipsoidal, obovoid or ovoid, yellow to orange brown, sometimes tinged with red or black and hard when ripe. 3-5cm long becomes 5 ribbed on drying. Fruits the ovoid, yellow to orange brown fruits are 2.5 to 4.0cms long. Usually 5- angled when dry, stone very think, bony, obsurely angled, rough, grooved, having gum vessels on the wall.76

Secondary metabolites

Tannic acid, Chebulinic acid, Gallic acid, Anthraquinone, Sennoside, Ellagic acid, Chebulic acid, Gallotannins such as 1,6 di-O-galloyl-M-Dglucose, 3,4,6 tri-O-galloyl-M-D-glucose, 2,3,4,6 tetra-O-galloyl-M-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6 penta-Ogalloyl- M-D-glucose. Ellagitannin such as Punacalagin, Casurarinin, Corilagin and Terchebulin Chebulanin, Neochebulinic acid, Chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid. 77-83

Therapeutic use in piles

The herb chebulic myroblan is a popular remedy for piles. The fruit should be roasted to a brown color in cluster oil, and then powdered and stored. Half a teaspoon of this powder at bedtime will bring about normal bowel movements in the morning. A decoction of the herb prepared by boiling six 10 seven dry fruits in half a litre of water should be used for washing bleeding piles. The paste of the fruit mixed in bland oil is good as an external application.2,50

Vaccinium myrtillus

PREFACE
Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) is a member of the Ericaceae family, and is also known as European blueberry, huckleberry, whortleberry, or blueberry. It is a shrubby perennial plant one to two feet in height and can be found in the mountains and forests of Europe and the northern United States. Its branches contain alternating, elliptical, bright green leaves, and its flowers, which appear from April to June, are reddish or pink, and bell-shaped. The fruit of the bilberry plant is blue-black or purple and differs from the American blueberry in that the meat of the fruit is purple, rather than cream or white. Fruit is harvested July through September, and time of ripeness is somewhat dependent on plant elevation. Plants growing at higher elevations generally ripen later than those at lower elevations. Bilberry has been used as food for centuries due to its high nutritive value, and today represents a precious wild delicacy. Bilberry’s history of medicinal use dates back to the Middle Ages, but it did not become widely known to herbalists until the 16th century when its use was documented for treating bladder stones, biliary disorders, scurvy, coughs, and lung tuberculosis. More recently, bilberry fruit extracts have been used for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, and mouth and throat inflammations. Bilberry leaf decoctions have been used to lower blood sugar in diabetes.84

Secondary metabolites

Anthocyanins, Vitamins, Sugars, Pectins, Quercetin, Catechins, Tannins, Iridoids. 85

Therapeutic use in piles

Bilberry can also be used in the treatment of piles which is a unanimously used herbal remedy for the problem of same. The presence of bioflavonoid makes the herb useful in curing bleeding piles by improving the blood flow very efficiently.2

Verbascum thapus L.

PREFACE
Verbascum thapsus is an herbaceous plant native to Europe that is cultivated and naturalized in temperate areas of the world, including North America, Hawai'i, Reunion, Australia, and New Zealand. The plant can become invasive by quickly colonizing disturbed areas. V. thapsus plants produce numerous seeds that may remain dormant in the soil for over 100 years. V. thapsus is a state noxious weed in Colorado and Hawai'I.
In Hawai'i, V. thapsus is known from the Island of Hawai'i, where it infests roadsides at elevations from 5,000-10,000 ft (1,524-3,048 m) and is particularly dense around 6,562 ft (2,000 m) forming a monotypic cover that can out-compete native vegetation. It is feared that V. thapsus could do the same in similar native alpine ecosystems on Maui. In the 1980's, two plants were detected and eradicated in Haleakala National Park. In addition, plants were being cultivated by a plant grower in Kula. All plants have been destroyed. Recently, V. thapsus was again observed being cultivated in Kula. Early detection and control in natural areas as well as public education on noxious weed species are both needed to help keep V. thapsus from invading on Maui. "Stout biennial herbs 3-20 dm tall in the second year, densely yellowish wooly tomentose throughout, the hairs stellate or dendritic. Basal leaves obovate to oblanceolate, 8-50 cm long, 2.5-14 cm wide, densely yellowish or whitish wooly tomentose, margins entire to shallowly crenate; cauline leaves becoming progressively smaller toward the inflorescence, oblanceolate, sessile and decurrent on stem. Flowers in compact, spikelike panicles, pedicels partly adnate to the stem; calyx (5-)8-12 mm long, the lobes lanceolate; corolla yellow, rarely white, 8-15 mm long, scurfy pubescent externally, sometimes also ciliate, the hairs stellate; upper 3 staminal filaments villous with yellow hairs, the lower 2 glabrous to sparsely villous. Capsules broadly ovoid to ellipticovoid, 0.7-1 cm long, densely tomentose with stellate or branched hairs. 91,92

Secondary metabolites

Saponins, Iridoid, Phenylethanoid glycosides, Monoterpene glucoside, Neolignan glucosides, Flavonoids, Steroids, Spermine, alkaloids. Phenolic acids and fatty acids such as Apigenin-4’- rhamnoside, Luteolin, Verbacoside, 7,4’- dihydroxyflavon-4-rhamnoside, 5-hydroxy-6,7- dimeth oxyflavone-3-ol 93

Therapeutic use in piles

Mullein flower extract is considered as an effective alleviating substance which can be used in treating the problem of piles and other ailments. Mullein leaf extract can also be utilized in curing piles very effectively. The anti inflammatory properties of mullein extract is found to be beneficial in reducing the dilation of veins and hence relieving from the discomfort caused due to the same. This is one of the widely used herbal tonics for curing hemorrhoids.2, 9- 11

Zingiber officinale

PREFACE
Zingiber officinale or common cooking ginger originated in tropical Asia, but is now grown as a commercial crop for the ginger root in Latin America and Africa as well as South East Asia. Fifty percent of worldwide ginger production is in India. The best quality ginger comes from Jamaica. The common cooking ginger is an herbaceous perennial with upright stems and narrow medium green leaves arranged in two ranks on each stem. The plant gets about 4 ft (1.2 m) tall with leaves about 3/4 in (1.9 cm) wide and 7 (17.8 cm) long. Ginger grows from an aromatic tuber like rhizome (underground stem) which is warty and branched. The inflorescence grows on a separate stem from the foliage stem, and forms a dense spike, to 3 in (7.6 cm) tall. The bracts are green with translucent margins and the small flowers are yellow green with purple lips and cream colored blotches. Most gingers in cultivation are sterile cultivars grown for the edible rhizome, and the flower is rarely seen.There is a cultivar of Zingiber officinale known as 'Sunti', which comes from Java and is similar to the common cooking ginger, but forms smaller rhizomes. It is used in the same way as common ginger but is said to have better medicinal qualities. Ginger root is widely used around the world as a spice or food additive. Ginger is fried and eaten plain, and used in curry pastes and other sauces in India; it is grilled and used to flavor fish and meats or for making ginger tea in Indonesia; it is boiled or fried in Chinese cookery; used to baste chicken or eaten as pickled ginger (beni shoga) and served with sushi in Japan; and used in Jamaica to make Jamaican jerk paste. A ginger extracts with carbonated water makes the popular drink we call ginger ale. Ginger was used in the middle ages in Europe to flavor beer. 94-99

Secondary metabolites

Zingerone, Shogaolsand gingerols, Volatile oils, [6]- gingerol(1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy phenyl]-5- hydroxy-3-decanone) is the major pungent principle of ginger. Aresesquiterpenoids, (-)- Zingiberene sesquiterpenoids,M-sesquiphellandrene, Bisabolene, Arnesene , M-phelladrene, Cineol, Andcitral.94-99

Therapeutic use in piles

Ginger is also useful in this disease. Half a teaspoon of fresh ginger juice, mixed with one teaspoon each of fresh lime juice and fresh mint juice, and a tablespoon of honey, constitutes an effective medicine for piles. 2,9-11
 

Figures at a glance

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10
Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10
Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15
Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15
Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20
Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20
 

References




































































































Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Viewing options

Post your comment

Share This Article

Flyer image
journal indexing image
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh