Nanotechnology has the potential to offer solutions to these current obstacles in cancer therapies, because of its unique size and large surface-to-volume ratios. Nanoparticles may have properties of self-assembly, stability, specificity, drug encapsulation and biocompatibility as a result of their material composition. Nanoscale devices have impacted cancer biology at three levels: early detection, tumour imaging using radio contrast nanoparticles or quantum dots; and drug delivery using nanovectors and hybrid nanoparticles. Other role of nanotechnology, in management of various diseases and also in drug resistance in leukemia by blocking drug efflux from cancer cells and induce efficient delivery of si RNA into lymphocytes to block apoptosis in sepsis and targeting tumors also. Nanocrystals labeling with immune cells can act as a platform technology for nanoimmunotherapy. This review addresses the advancement of nanoparticles in drug delivery and in cancer therapy.